Crypto security through non-legal agents: The people against terror

Crypto security through non-legal agents: The people against terror

By considering Zamboni’s (2015) ideas on globalisation of politics and values, this blog discusses how (inter)national regulation, and the average person can counter terrorism through social media.

1. Decrypting terrorism: Inter(national) recruitment

Mythen and Walklate (2006, p. 382) characterise new terrorist groups (TG) through their transnational action sphere. TGs are non-State actors, who use digitalised recruitment methods to persuade nationals to act on their behalf (Ball, 2019). The process (Figure 1) aims to indoctrinate the recruit (Berger, 2015), pursuing an allegiance that climaxes with benevolent death. Durkheim (1897) categorised this as “fatalistic suicide”, proving complete disenchantment with the world and submersing into the groups’ customs.

Reb Mar Figure1 Blog Reb Mar Figure1 Blog
Digital TG Recruitment Process (Berger, 2015) - Design by M. Rebrean

Digitalised recruitment and radicalisation target national security but should be universally countered through non-linear globalisation (Zamboni, 2015). Before illustrating the construction of non-linearity through German and EU policies, Zamboni’s (2015) ideas are considered.

Zamboni (2015) describes the non-linear law-making model, by connecting the national and global action spheres, which through interaction result in multilateral legislation. He sustains that although political institutions are responsible for legal drafting and implementation, non-legal actors are essential in triggering the process, even if they require previous legal justification (Zamboni, 2015, p. 134). Non-legal actors are social media users, whereas legal actors are the States, as exemplified in the German and EU policies.

2. Social media: For and counter terrorism

As Zamboni (2015) explained, the world’s interconnectivity is reflected in non-linear law-making, and consequently in the globalisation of the legal system. The recently adopted EU and German legislation illustrate this idea (Figure 2). The laws commend the removal of TG-favourable content through manual and algorithmic processes (Deutscher Bundestag, 2017; European Parliament and Council, 2021) allowing platforms and users to resist TG recruitment.

Reb Mar Figure2 Blog Reb Mar Figure2 Blog
German and European social media counterterrorist policies, and how they multilaterally initiated global legislation (Deutscher Bundestag, 2017, European Parliament and Council, 2021; Macdonald, S., Correia, S., & Watkin, A., 2019) - Design by M. Rebrean.

Content prohibition has been publicly scrutinised through freedom of speech (FoS) narratives. Previously, content filters were internally regulated, however State involvement brought new socio-legal issues to the surface. Here, Mythen and Walklate (2006, p. 381) argue that TGs are terrorist for the threatened States but symbolise their follower’s freedom. Whose ideals prevail? The dilemma revolves around TG-associated values, national sovereignty, and the globalisation of values (Zamboni, 2015).

3. Globalising values and social media: Whose freedom wins?

Social media counterterrorism policies prevail despite the FoS debate due to national security and globalised democratic State values. Such values are hegemonic and support the most universal rights and freedoms (Mouffe, 1993). These values further individual rights and ensure (trans)national sovereignty. It is unsurprising that the global majority aims for the implementation of democratic standards.

TGs threaten this regime; therefore, their messages cannot be considered under FoS but should be reduced through (inter)national legislation (Macdonald, S., Correia, S., & Watkin, A., 2019). Given the dark web’s vastness, it is difficult to conceive how it can be controlled. However, it is possible to regulate social media platforms in the interest of national security, therefore ensuring FoS for the nation’s citizens by reducing the threat of terrorism.

Because national security relies on international partnerships, the unified global approach to social media is indispensable. As Figure 2 shows, it is through the double-sided (supra/national) legislation that nations can enforce content prohibition. Here, globalisation and the globalisation of values as presented by Zamboni (2015) is highlighted. Through global filtering of digital TG recruitment, the threat of citizen-based sporadic and transnational attacks diminishes. The value in question surpasses FoS, in favour of citizen protection and national sovereignty.

It is not only the value or legal category that is pursued, but also the policies. Under the globalisation of politics of law, Zamboni (2015) describes legislation that is cohesively and structurally implemented. Although the EU offers a strong example of this, it is possible to uncover other similar legislation outside the EU, e.g., in the United States. Considering the above, the final point remains: how can the average Joe and Jane prevent terrorism?

4. Ordinary people – extraordinary impact

Counterterrorism is a State responsibility, though social media is not. These user-enabled platforms, however, function by identifying and reporting TGs. In this context, non-legal actors matter.

Individuals spread information and create moral panics (Auerhahn, 2006). An individual can draw mass online attention and thus propagate certain ideals. The individual, through their voice and consumption, can censor or spread information, demanding actions on uncovered issues such as Palestine and Myanmar.

As Zamboni (2015) said, the role of the non-legal actor in creating globalised values and politics should not be understated. I am an average Jane, and through personal research I wrote this piece which will hopefully inform and encourage understanding of individual roles in counterterrorism and national defence. If social media is as social as it claims to be, it can socialise the world to become more aware and push State action.

1 Comment

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

The truth is an individual implicated in a crime will probably claim a primitive deal, with no skills of a competent attorney. Therefore, in the event that you or a member of family happens to be charged of committing a offense, don't pause to make contact with one of our Los Angeles county criminal defense lawyer professionals. Our team We solely load our positions aided by the recommended professional brains in the neighborhood. All of us of judiciary experts are extremely familiar with what the law states therefore the bureaucratic procedure that complicates a range of criminal record occurrences. Our criminal defense attorney are true professionals. These lawyers should never pass personal judgment on a customer faced with heinous criminal acts such as for example murder, rape if not child molestation. They have to and also to the best of their ability defend a customer who they might specifically think to be guilty of this crime for which they've been charged. Once again, they need to put aside personalized viewpoints or views and represent a customer which has been faced with committing unspeakable acts. Subsequently, growing a criminal defense legal practitioner not just takes work however true character to defending every single man or woman's proper rights granted beneath the law. Each instance offers its own particular sets of problems despite which side of the court room your defendant rests. Through all types of law there are advantages and disadvantages, however with criminal law most seem to only begin to see the cons. Often there is the alternative of a unlawful conviction, a mistrial in a very significant case, or the risks of coping with severe lawbreaker, mainly their unique livelihood and various criminal resources of large revenue. Many counselors does agree that there was a long variety of downsides, then negative feed-back that just follow the career, but the majority prospering law firms be seemingly in a position to see beyond the hard words and actions, consequently they are able to start to see the good that is released of performing criminal law. The grand verdicts which further prove your valued clients purity to your subdivision, all of the the cases and clients, in addition to power to be cross evaluating witnesses within the court room virtually every year, usually are regarded. If you want to read more about this post subject matter head to excellent martial arts site: https://amicuslegalgroup.com/2020/08/06/what-is-credit-counseling/[color=#000_url - what to do after an uber accident surrounding Corona California

Add a comment