The paradox of Dutch counterterrorism measures

The paradox of Dutch counterterrorism measures

It seems that the Dutch Counterterrorism Act has not contributed to government objectives. Does the Act limit threats to national security or does it threaten the foundations of Dutch society?

In 2017, the Dutch government announced the Wet bestuurlijke maatregelen terrorismebestrijding (Counterterrorism Interim Administrative Measures Act). This Act will expire after five years and its intention is to limit the risks to national security posed by individuals associated with terrorist activities or the support of such activities. The Act imposes extensive administrative control measures to reduce threats posed by jihadism: ‘a duty to report regularly to the police’; ‘restrict access to certain places and areas’; ‘restrict contact with specific people’; and ‘restrict the ability to travel outside the Schengen area.’ In the fight against terrorism, it is relevant today to reflect on the effectiveness and impact of this Act.

Fear created by fear

Since the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, the world has been increasingly concerned about terrorism. Ulrich Beck has described this as the ‘terrorist world risk society’. Following Beck’s thesis, described by Mythen and Walklate as well as Giddens, modern society is increasingly preoccupied with future risks because of the unintended and unforeseen growing shift from an industrial to a technologically advanced society. During this shift, human intervention has caused a transition in fear from external to manufactured risks. While anxiety for natural risks has faded away, Mythen and Walklate argue that modern society itself has created new risks. According to Beck, terrorist risks in particular cannot be delimited by institutional intervention and endanger greater potential harm with generated irreparable effects, causing a chaotic risk society with radical changes in politics and social distribution.

Grafiekblog Grafiekblog
Numbers obtained from CBS

But is there a real terrorist threat to the Dutch national security?

The Dutch government considers the jihadism movement to be the major threat to national security. Based on various information sources, the Netherlands is working with a system of threat levels that indicate the probability of a terrorist attack. Currently, the threat level continues to be 3 out of a possible 5; a terrorist attack in the Netherlands is a real possibility.

In 2017, a report by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) on public opinion regarding terrorism disclosed that 70% of Dutch citizens is worried about the possibility of a terrorist attack. Nevertheless, only 42% think that there is actually a high chance that a terrorist attack will be committed.

Effects of globalisation

Globalisation has massive impact on our modern risk society and Jarvis refers to the speedup movement and exchanges all over the world. As Halliday explains, globalisation has two inter-related elements: (1) the opening of borders to increasing flows of people, goods, services, and all other forms of exchange; and (2) the changes in politics and mechanisms at national and international level that contribute to such flows. This process affects all States and social classes because globalisation does not recognise boundaries. The downside of globalisation facilitates new and unforeseen risks and anxieties.

According to Van der Woude, many events in western society have contributed to the increasing anxiety in the Netherlands. A few examples are the murder of Theo van Gogh (Amsterdam, 2004); airport shootings (Germany, 2011); shooting at Jewish Museum (Brussels, 2014); Charlie Hebdo shootings (Paris, 2015); suicide attack (Brussels, 2016); and tram shooting (Utrecht, 2019). More examples can be found here. The short timeframe in which all these events occurred has had a significant effect on the rising feeling of insecurity in the Netherlands.

Thus, modern society is going through a growing shift where it is being forced to deal with unpredictable and new risks. Additionally, these risks remain constant globally, and could therefore harm people all around the world. Giddens argued that modern society lives in constant fear because ‘we don’t and we can’t know’ the diversity of new risks.

So, who can we hold responsible?

Pre-crime response

To rule out future risks and threats by terrorists, McCulloch and Pickering argue that all politicians and institutions are being forced to create pre-emptive security measures. However, risk and threat anticipation consolidates tendencies in traditional criminal justice systems by focusing on crimes not yet committed. Modern criminal justice is thus focused on pre-crime with ‘the aim to identify threats and make interventions before crimes take place’.

The Dutch Counterterrorism Act is an excellent example of pre-crime measures that are intended to limit the threats posed by jihadism. To be more specific, the Act embraces three major objectives: ‘to protect democracy and the rule of law, to weaken the jihadist movement and to remove the breeding ground for radicalisation'. By justifying the counterterrorism measures based on protecting national security, individuals can be subjected to widespread control measures and restrictions before actually committing crimes.

But is this an effective solution to limit terrorist threats?

An evaluation report published by the Dutch Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) in 2020 revealed that the counterterrorism measures have not contributed to the government’s objectives and that these measures have only been applied in a small number of cases. For instance, the measures did not contribute to deradicalisation, knowledge about individuals associated with terrorism, nor to a proper estimate of new risks and threats. Unfortunately, the measures have little added value in the fight against terrorism. Even more dramatically, interviews held by the WODC show that certain police officers, members of the judiciary and officials from municipalities argue that these measures can be counterproductive in practice and could even ‘trigger terrorist attacks’.

However, from a human rights perspective, the most problematic thing about this Act is the fact that executive authorities can interfere with individual rights without effective judicial control. According to the European Court of Human Rights’ ruling in Szabo and Vissy v. Hungary (2016), these measures authorised by executive authorities are ‘eminently political’ and ‘incapable of ensuring the requisite assessment of strict necessity with regard to the aims and means at stake’. This may cause a potential clash between national and supranational norms, and the Netherlands should take this into account, as Halliday and Zamboni argue. Moreover, the Act undermines individuals’ right to freedom of movement guaranteed in Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights.


To conclude with the central paradox of Beck’s risk society applied to the Dutch Temporary Administrative Powers to Counter Terrorism Act: the Netherlands is trying to limit the manufactured threats and risks of jihadism by a set of far-reaching counterterrorism measures. However, by doing so the Netherlands is not contributing to its objectives, but is undermining human rights and even triggering new terrorist attacks. Unfortunately this Act is undermining the foundations of Dutch society, creating new and unforeseen threats.


Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Just came across this jewel of a website and had to share the love. As a injury lawyer, discovering a area packed with helpful details is complete gold. Thrilled to let you in on my own website , where personal injury legal meets simple chats. Explore for a innovative perspective on your privileges and traversing the legal system. Here's to finding and legal empowerment.
<a href=https://amicuslegalgroup.com/2020/02/29/types-of-spinal-cord-injuries-explained-by-our-la-personal-injury-lawyers/><font color=black_url>Redlands Encouraging legal assistance for people involved in truck crashes</font></a>
<a href=http://4dmgame.funbbs.me/viewthread.php?tid=7602&pid=218996&page=8079&extra=#pid218996>The Difference Between Workplace Compensation and Injury Claims</a> f02fb5_

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Hey friends! Ecstatic to come across this awesome platform! As a personal injury attorney, discovering valuable information is like hitting the jackpot. I recently launched my own hub to share expert insights. Trust me, grasping the details of personal injury cases can be a real game-changer.
<a href=https://amicuslegalgroup.com/jurupa-valley-car-accident-lawyer/><font color=black_url>Yucaipa Legal representation assistance for individuals involved in unexpected events</font></a>
<a href=https://glorybeats.com/privacy-mnemosyne-trust45/#comment-6165>Pursuing Reparation for Loss of Consortium in Personal Injury Legal Cases</a> 199d749

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Hey hi, legal wanderers! Elated to find this awesome platform. Being a personal injury lawyer, I treasure practical insights. Let me tell you I've got my own hub now, making simple personal injury law for everyone. Delve into, check out, and let's make legal understanding a snap.
<a href=https://www.sharkbrew.com/community/index.php?/topic/59915-the-involvement-of-pain-and-suffering-in-injury-redress/>The Involvement of Pain and Suffering in Injury Redress</a> ff02fb0

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Hey people! Thrilled to come across this fantastic platform! As a personal injury attorney, discovering precious insights is like striking gold. I recently unveiled launched my own platform to share expert views. Rest assured, grasping the nuances of personal injury cases can be a game-changer.
<a href=https://baimless.com/forums/topic/17036-medical-facility-liability-and-keeping-healthcare-providers-responsible-for-carelessness/>Medical Facility Liability and Keeping Healthcare Providers Responsible for Carelessness</a> a5c8ce9

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Hey hello, judicial seekers! Thrilled to stumble upon this amazing platform. Being a personal injury legal counsel, I value practical insights. Let me tell you I've got my own center now, simplifying personal injury law for everyone. Dive in, check out, and let's make legal grasping a walk in the park.
<a href=http://webgamer.net/threads/really-should-blazers-indication-jevon-carter.391543/page-2#post-2093550>Recording a Personal Injury Claim and Statutory Restrictions Explained</a> fb0_fb3

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Hey hi, legal seekers Elated to stumble upon this incredible site. Being a personal injury legal counsel, I treasure useful knowledge. Quick heads up – I've got my own space now, simplifying personal injury law for everyone. Delve into, discover, and let's make legal comprehension a breeze.
[url=https://langvault.com/threads/is-bingchat-better-than-chatgpt.52/#post-98]Product Culpability Cases and Upkeeping Makers Culpable[/url] b8e86ec

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

Hey friends! Excited I stumbled upon this amazing site! As a personal injury attorney, clarity in legal talks is entirely my vibe. Overjoyed to inform you about my hub , a space where we clarify personal injury law without the difficulty. Check it out, participate the discussion, and let's travel through the official journey together.
<a href=http://x95063oo.beget.tech/index.php?topic=66061.new#new>Hospital Accountability and Preserving Clinical Facilities Responsible for Failure</a> 3a5199d

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

The truth is an individual implicated of a crime is going to consider a half-baked offer, with no expertises of a qualified attorney. Therefore, in the event that you or a relative happens to be charged of committing a offense, do not forget to make contact with one of our Orange county criminal defense attorney specialists. Our team We exclusive fill our ranks utilizing the great reliable psyche in the neighborhood. All of us of authorized pros are particularly proficient in what the law states additionally the red tape that complicates a host of offender situations. Our criminal defense law firms are true masters. These law firms must not pass personal judgment on a customer faced with heinous violations such as for example murder, rape if not child molestation. They need to and to the very best of their capability defend a client who they could actually trust to be guilty associated with crime by which these are typically charged. Once again, they must put away particular values furthermore ideas and protect a customer which has been faced with carrying out ineffable acts. Which means, growing to be a criminal defense attorney not just takes effort and true character to defending every single person's legal rights awarded beneath the law. Each situation exhibits a unique distinct groups of difficulties despite which region of the court room your very own client is situated. With every type of law you will find advantages and disadvantages, however with criminal law more seem to simply begin to see the cons. There is always the alternative of a wrongful conviction, a mistrial in a remarkably relevant case, or the risks of working with violent criminal, primarily their profession and differing criminal resources of large revenue. Many legal professionals can easily agree that there clearly was a long listing of downsides, and also adverse views that follow the position, but most worthwhile law firms appear to be in a position to see beyond the tough words and moves, and are also in a position to look at good that is released of engaging in criminal law. The fantastic verdicts which additionally confirm your new clients pureness into the community, all of the the cases and clients, additionally the capability to be cross analyzing witnesses in the court room virtually every working day, usually are considered. Should you want to uncover more about it topic area come visit my favorite martial art url: [url=https://amicuslegalgroup.com/practice-areas/dui-defense/victorville-dui-lawyer/[color=#000_url]side impact car accident round Rancho Cucamonga California[/color][/url]

Charlesneeks CharlesneeksTR

The truth is a person accused in a crime will probably put a raw offer, with no expert services of a reliable attorney. Therefore, in the event that you or a member of family happens to be accused of committing a criminal activity, do not stop to make contact with certainly one of our Orange county criminal defense law firm professionals. Our team Our firm one fill our positions using the top rated sound minds in the community. All of us of legal workers have become familiar with what the law states as well as the red-tape that complicates a total of criminal court cases. Our criminal defense lawyers are true experts. These lawyers should never pass personal judgment on a customer faced with harsh offenses such as for instance murder, rape if not child molestation. They need to and also to the very best of their capability defend a customer who they could directly think to be guilty of this crime by which they have been charged. Once again, they have to put away personal values and also ideas and guard a customer that is charged with carrying out ineffable behaviors. Subsequently, learning to be a criminal defense legal representative not just may take effort however true character to defending each and every man or woman's privileges provided underneath the law. Every single circumstances shows its own particular sets of challenges despite which region of the court room your very own client is found. Through all types of law you can find pros and cons, however with criminal law most seem to simply look at cons. Often there is the likelihood of a inappropriate sentence, a mistrial as part of a remarkably essential case, or the risks of coping with violent villain, primarily his or her living and various criminal types of large profits. Many practitioners do agree totally that there is certainly more information on disadvantages, and also damaging views that accompany the career, but the majority worthwhile legal representatives appear to be able to see after dark hard words and practices, and are usually in a position to look at good that is released of performing criminal law. The large verdicts just that moreover show your potential clients pureness towards the community, all of the the cases and clients, in addition to capability to be cross evaluating witnesses into the court room nearly every night, are often considered. If you want to uncover more info on it focus have a look at my own martial art website: https://amicuslegalgroup.com/2022-breaking-the-stigma-scholarship-terms-and-conditions/[color=#000_url - common spinal cord injuries from a motorcycle accident in california near Victorville CA

Add a comment